## Rigidity

Calculates the magnetic rigidity (RB) and the electric rigidity (RE). The maximum rigidities that EMMA can handle are, RB, max = 1.0 Tm and RE, max = 25 MV.

## Energy Loss

Calculates the mean energy loss and the 1σ straggling. If the ion is stopped in the target material, the mean range is given.

## Charge State

Calculates the mean (μ) and the standard deviation (σ) of the equilibrium charge-state distribution, which is assumed to be Gaussian, using various parametrizations.

## Multiple Scattering

Calculates the half-width of the angular distribution (α1/2) and the half-width of the lateral-displacement distribution (ρ1/2). Additional derived quantities are given to help the user assess the accuracy of the calculation.

## Fusion Evaporation

Estimates the average deflection angle and fractional speed reduction incurred to the recoil nucleus due to the evaporation process using the formulas of Handschug, Backe, and Bokemeyer, NIM 161 (1979) 117-122.